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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 16, 2018

Registration No. 333-      

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Ireland

 

N/A

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

 

25-28 North Wall Quay, IFSC
Dublin 1, Ireland
(+353 1 649-2000)

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 


 

Colin Broom
Chief Executive Officer
Nabriva Therapeutics plc
1000 Continental Drive, Suite 600

King of Prussia, PA 19406

(610) 816-6640
(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 


 

Copies to:

 

Brian A. Johnson
Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
7 World Trade Center
250 Greenwich Street
New York, New York 10007
Telephone: (212) 230-8800
Fax: (212) 230-8888

 

Robert Crotty
General Counsel
Nabriva Therapeutics plc
1000 Continental Drive, Suite 600
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406
Telephone: (610) 816-6640
Fax: (610) 816-6639

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. o

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. o

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

o

Accelerated filer

x

Non-accelerated filer

o

Smaller reporting company

o

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Emerging growth company

x

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. x

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered(1)

 

Amount to be
Registered(1)

 

Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Unit(1)

 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price(1)

 

Amount of
Registration
Fee(1)

 

Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ordinary Shares, nominal value $0.01 per share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depositary Shares(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase Contracts(3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase Units(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

$

225,000,000

 

 

 

$

225,000,000

 

$

28,013

 

 

(1)                           Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, in U.S. dollars or the equivalent thereof denominated in foreign currencies, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder or that are represented by depositary shares as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $225,000,000.  Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any share split, share dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities. In addition, the total amount to be registered and the proposed maximum aggregate offering price are estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

 

(2)                           Each depositary share will be issued under a deposit agreement, will represent an interest in a preferred share or multiple preferred shares and will be evidenced by a depositary receipt.

 

(3)                           Each purchase contract will be issued under a purchase agreement and will obligate holders to purchase from or sell to Nabriva Therapeutics plc (the “Registrant”) and obligate the Registrant to sell to or purchase from the holders, a specified number of ordinary shares, preferred shares or depositary shares.

 

(4)                           Each purchase unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in one or more purchase contracts and beneficial interests in debt securities, capital securities or any other securities, in any combination, which may or may not be separable from one another.

 


 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 



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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated March 16, 2018

 

$225,000,000

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

 

Debt Securities
Ordinary Shares

Preferred Shares
Depositary Shares
Purchase Contracts
Purchase Units
Warrants

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $225,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

 

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.”

 

Our ordinary shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NBRV.”

 


 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 


 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is              , 2018.

 



Table of Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

1

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING THE REDOMICILIATION

1

 

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

2

 

 

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

2

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

3

 

 

THE COMPANY

4

 

 

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED SHARE DIVIDENDS

5

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

6

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

7

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

16

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

37

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS AND PURCHASE UNITS

40

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

41

 

 

FORMS OF SECURITIES

42

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

44

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

47

 

 

EXPERTS

47

 



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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $225,000,000.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING THE REDOMICILIATION

 

On June 23, 2017, Nabriva Therapeutics plc, a public limited company organized under the laws of Ireland, or Nabriva Ireland, became the successor issuer to Nabriva Therapeutics AG, a stock corporation (Aktiengesellschaft) organized under the laws of Austria, or Nabriva Austria, for certain purposes under both the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and certain of Nabriva Austria’s historical reports filed under the Exchange Act are incorporated by reference in this prospectus.  Such succession occurred following the conclusion of a tender offer related to the exchange of American Depositary Shares and common shares of Nabriva Austria for ordinary shares of Nabriva Ireland, which resulted in Nabriva Ireland, a new Irish holding company, becoming the ultimate holding company of Nabriva Austria (the predecessor registrant and former ultimate holding company) and its subsidiaries.

 

Unless the context specifically indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Nabriva Therapeutics plc,” “Nabriva,” “Nabriva Ireland,” “we,” “our,” “ours,” “us,” “our company,” “our group” or similar terms refer to Nabriva Therapeutics plc, a public limited company incorporated in Ireland, and its consolidated subsidiaries. References in this prospectus to “Nabriva Austria” refer to Nabriva Therapeutics AG, our predecessor.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.nabriva.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

 

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

·                  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 (File No. 001-37558);

 

·                  our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 2, 2018 (File No. 001-37558); and

 

·                  the description of our ordinary shares included under the caption “Description of the Ordinary Shares” in the prospectus dated May 23, 2017, which was filed on May 23, 2017 and is part of the Registration Statement on Form S-4 originally filed with the Commission on April 14, 2017 (Registration No. 333-217315), including any amendments or supplements thereto.

 

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

Nabriva Therapeutics plc
Attention: Investor Relations
1000 Continental Drive, Suite 600
King of Prussia, PA 19406
(610) 816-6640

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements contained or incorporated by reference herein, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

 

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, except to the extent required by law.

 

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THE COMPANY

 

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company engaged in the research and development of novel anti-infective agents to treat serious infections, with a focus on the pleuromutilin class of antibiotics. We are developing our lead product candidate, lefamulin, to be the first pleuromutilin antibiotic available for systemic administration in humans.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 25-28 North Wall Quay, IFSC, Dublin 1, Ireland, and our telephone number is +353 1 649 2000.  Our U.S. operations are conducted by our wholly-owned subsidiary Nabriva Therapeutics US, Inc., a Delaware corporation established in August 2014 and located at 1000 Continental Drive, Suite 600, King of Prussia, PA 19406 and its telephone number is (610) 816-6640.

 

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CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND
RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED SHARE DIVIDENDS

 

The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and the ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred share dividends for each of the periods indicated. You should read this table in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

2016

 

2015

 

2014

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consolidated ratios of earnings to fixed charges(1)

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

8.9x

 

Consolidated ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred share dividends(2)

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

8.9x

 

 


(1) Our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges by approximately $74.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, $54.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, $47.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 and $14.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014.

 

(2) Our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges and preferred share dividends by approximately $74.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, $54.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, $48.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 and $14.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014.

 

For purposes of calculating the ratios above, earnings consist of net loss from continuing operations plus provision for income taxes and fixed charges. Fixed charges include the interest portion of rent expense which is deemed to be representative of the interest factor.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, the acquisition or licensing of other products, businesses or technologies, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including term deposits and short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. and certain European government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Nabriva Therapeutics plc excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

 

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to individually as an indenture and together as the indentures and the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to individually as a trustee and together as the trustees. This section summarizes some of the provisions of the indentures and is qualified in its entirety by the specific text of the indentures, including definitions of terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections of, or defined terms in, the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

 

Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

 

General

 

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

 

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

·        the title and type of the debt securities;

 

·        whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to any subordinated debt securities the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

·        the initial aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

·        the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

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·        the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

·        the rate or rates, if any, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

·        the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the method of determination of such dates;

 

·        the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

·        the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

·        provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

·        any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

·       the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

·        any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

·        whether the debt securities will be subject to the defeasance provisions in the indenture;

 

·        whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

·        whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

·        any special tax implications of the debt securities;

 

·        any events of defaults or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture; and

 

·        any other material terms of the debt securities.

 

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

 

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

 

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

 

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such

 

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discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

 

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

·        the successor entity, if any, is a corporation, limited liability company, limited company, partnership, trust or similar entity in the United States, Ireland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom or any other member state of the European Union;

 

·        the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

·        immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

·        we have delivered to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

 

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into a single direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of ours.

 

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

 

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

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Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture with respect to senior debt securities of each series:

 

·        failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

·        failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

·        default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

·        certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

·        any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

 

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

 

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

 

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive a continuing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust

 

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or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

·        the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

·        the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

·        the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

·        the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

·        during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

 

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security of any affected series to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

 

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

 

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

·        we have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all senior debt securities of such series (with certain limited exceptions) when due and payable; or

 

·        we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture (with certain limited exceptions); or

 

·        all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the senior trustee) and we deposit in trust an amount of cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) sufficient to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

 

and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

 

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of

 

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such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

 

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

 

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

·        We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

·        There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

·        We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

 

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

 

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change in current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

·        We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

·        We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

 

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

 

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder:

 

·        to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

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·        to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

·        to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”);

 

·        to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

·        to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

·        to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

·        to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

·        to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

·        to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the senior indenture in respect of one or more series of senior debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (a) neither (1) apply to any senior debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (2) modify the rights of the holder of any such senior debt security with respect to such provision or (b) become effective only when there is no senior debt security described in clause (a)(1) outstanding;

 

·        to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

·        to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

 

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of each series affected by the amendment or modification (voting as a separate series); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

·        extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·        reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·        reduces the rate, or extends the time for payment of, interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·        reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·        changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·        reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

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·        waives a continuing default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities);

 

·        changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

·        modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification;

 

·        adversely affects the right to convert or exchange senior debt securities into ordinary shares or other property in accordance with the terms of the senior debt securities; or

 

·        reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies or amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

 

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

 

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

 

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

 

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

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Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

 

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

 

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

 

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

·        all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

·        all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

·        all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

·        all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

·        all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

 

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

 

The following description of our share capital is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our share capital. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our memorandum and articles of association and applicable provisions of the Irish Companies Act. You should read our memorandum and articles of association, which are filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

 

Capital Structure

 

Authorized and Issued Share Capital

 

Our authorized share capital consists of 1,000,000,000 ordinary shares of $0.01 each and 100,000,000 preferred shares of $0.01 each with a liquidation preference per preferred share as determined by the directors. As of December 31, 2017, 36,707,685 ordinary shares were outstanding and no preferred shares were outstanding.

 

We may issue shares subject to the maximum authorized share capital contained in our memorandum and articles of association. The authorized share capital may be increased or reduced (but not below the number of issued ordinary shares or preferred shares, as applicable) by a resolution approved by a simple majority of the votes of our shareholders cast at a general meeting (referred to under Irish law as an “ordinary resolution”) (unless otherwise determined by the directors). The shares comprising our authorized share capital may be divided into shares of any nominal value.

 

The rights and restrictions to which the ordinary shares are subject are prescribed in our articles of association. Our articles of association entitle our Board of Directors, without shareholder approval, to determine the terms of our preferred shares. Preferred shares may be preferred as to dividends, rights upon liquidation or voting in such manner as our Board of Directors may resolve. The preferred shares may also be redeemable at the option of the holder of the preferred shares or at our option, and may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of any of our other class or classes, depending on the terms of such preferred shares.  The specific terms of any series of preferred shares offered pursuant to this prospectus will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred shares.

 

Irish law does not recognize fractional shares held of record. Accordingly, our articles of association do not provide for the issuance of fractional shares, and our official Irish register will not reflect any fractional shares.

 

Whenever an alteration or reorganization of our share capital would result in any of our shareholders becoming entitled to fractions of a share, our Board of Directors may, on behalf of those shareholders that would become entitled to fractions of a share, arrange for the sale of the shares representing fractions and the distribution of the net proceeds of sale in due proportion among the shareholders who would have been entitled to the fractions.

 

Pre-emption Rights, Share Warrants and Share Options

 

Under Irish law certain statutory pre-emption rights apply automatically in favor of shareholders where shares are to be issued for cash. However, we have opted out of these pre-emption rights in our articles of association as permitted under Irish company law. Irish law requires this opt-out to be renewed every five years by a resolution approved by not less than 75% of the votes of our shareholders cast at a general meeting (referred to under Irish law as a “special resolution”). If the opt-out is not renewed, shares issued for cash must be offered to our existing shareholders on a pro rata basis to their existing shareholding before the shares can be issued to any new shareholders. The statutory pre-emption rights do not apply where shares are issued for non-cash consideration (such as in a share-for-share acquisition) and do not apply to the issue of non-equity shares (that is, shares that have the right to participate only up to a specified amount in any income or capital distribution) or where shares are issued pursuant to an employee stock option or similar equity plan.

 

Our memorandum and articles of association provide that, subject to any shareholder approval requirement under any laws, regulations or the rules of any stock exchange to which we are subject, the Board is authorized, from time to time, in its discretion, to grant such persons, for such periods and upon such terms as the Board deems

 

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advisable, options to purchase such number of shares of any class or classes or of any series of any class as the Board of Directors may deem advisable, and to cause warrants or other appropriate instruments evidencing such options to be issued. The Irish Companies Act provides that directors may issue share warrants or options without shareholder approval once authorized to do so by the articles of association. We are subject to the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market that require shareholder approval of certain equity plans and share issuances. Our Board of Directors may authorize the issuance of shares upon exercise of warrants or options without shareholder approval or authorization (up to the relevant authorized share capital limit).

 

Under Irish law, we are prohibited from allotting shares without consideration. Accordingly, at least the nominal value of the shares issued underlying any restricted share award, restricted share unit, performance share award, bonus share or any other share based grant must be paid pursuant to the Irish Companies Act.

 

Dividends

 

Under Irish law, dividends and distributions may only be made from distributable reserves. Distributable reserves generally means accumulated realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less accumulated realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital, and includes reserves created by way of capital reduction. In addition, no distribution or dividend may be made unless our net assets are equal to, or in excess of, the aggregate of our called up share capital plus undistributable reserves and the distribution does not reduce our net assets below such aggregate. Undistributable reserves include the undenominated capital, the amount by which our accumulated unrealized profits, so far as not previously utilized by any capitalization, exceed our accumulated unrealized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital and any other reserve that we are prohibited from distributing by applicable law.

 

The determination as to whether or not we have sufficient distributable reserves to fund a dividend must be made by reference to our “relevant financial statements.” The “relevant financial statements” are either the last set of unconsolidated annual audited financial statements or other financial statements properly prepared in accordance with the Irish Companies Act. The relevant financial statements must be filed in the Companies Registration Office (the official public registry for companies in Ireland).

 

Consistent with Irish law, our articles of association authorize the directors to declare interim dividends without shareholder approval out of funds lawfully available for the purpose, to the extent they appear justified by profits and subject always to the requirement to have distributable reserves at least equal to the amount of the proposed dividend. The Board of Directors may also recommend a dividend to be approved and declared by our shareholders at a general meeting. The Board of Directors may direct that the payment be made by distribution of assets, shares or cash and no dividend declared or paid may exceed the amount recommended by the directors. Dividends may be paid in U.S. dollars or any other currency.

 

Our directors may deduct from any dividend payable to any shareholder any amounts payable by such shareholder to us in relation to our shares.

 

Our directors may also authorize the issuance of shares with preferred rights to participate in our declared dividends. The holders of preferred shares may, depending on their terms, rank senior to our ordinary shares in terms of dividend rights and/or be entitled to claim arrears of a declared dividend out of subsequently declared dividends in priority to ordinary shareholders.

 

Share Repurchases, Redemptions and Conversions

 

Overview

 

Our memorandum and articles of association provide that, in general, any ordinary shares which we have agreed to acquire shall be deemed to be a redeemable share. Accordingly, for Irish company law purposes, the repurchase of ordinary shares by us may technically be effected as a redemption of those shares as described below under “—Repurchases and Redemptions by Nabriva.” If our articles of association did not contain such provision, all repurchases by us would be subject to many of the same rules that apply to purchases of our shares by

 

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subsidiaries described below under “—Purchases by Subsidiaries of Nabriva,” including the shareholder approval requirements described below and the requirement that any on-market purchases be effected on a “recognized stock exchange.”

 

Repurchases and Redemptions by Nabriva

 

Under Irish law, a company may issue redeemable shares and redeem them out of distributable reserves or, if the company proposes to cancel the shares on redemption, the proceeds of a new issue of shares for that purpose. We may only issue redeemable shares if the nominal value of the issued share capital that is not redeemable is not less than 10% of the nominal value of our total issued share capital. All redeemable shares must also be fully-paid and the terms of redemption of the shares must provide for payment on redemption. Based on the provision of our articles described above, shareholder approval will not be required to redeem our shares.

 

We may also be given an additional general authority by our shareholders to purchase our own shares on-market, which would take effect on the same terms and be subject to the same conditions as applicable to purchases by our subsidiaries as described below.

 

Our Board of Directors may also issue preferred shares which may be redeemed at either our option or the option of the shareholder, depending on the terms of such preferred shares. Please see “—Authorized Share Capital.”

 

Repurchased and redeemed shares may be cancelled or held as treasury shares. The nominal value of treasury shares held by us at any time must not exceed 10% of the nominal value of our issued share capital. We may not exercise any voting rights in respect of any shares held as treasury shares. Treasury shares may be cancelled by us or re-issued subject to certain conditions.

 

Purchases by Subsidiaries of Nabriva

 

Under Irish law, an Irish or non-Irish subsidiary may purchase our shares either as overseas market purchases on a recognized stock exchange such as the Nasdaq or off-market. For a subsidiary of ours to make market purchases of our shares, our shareholders must provide general authorization for such purchase by way of ordinary resolution. However, as long as this general authority has been granted, no specific shareholder authority for a particular market purchase by a subsidiary of our shares is required.

 

For an off-market purchase by a subsidiary of ours, the proposed purchase contract must be authorized by special resolution of the shareholders before the contract is entered into. The person whose shares are to be bought back cannot vote in favor of the special resolution and, for at least 21 days prior to the special resolution being passed, the purchase contract must be on display or must be available for inspection by shareholders at our registered office from the date of the notice of the meeting at which the resolution approving the contract is to be proposed.

 

In order for a subsidiary of ours to make an on-market purchase of our shares, such shares must be purchased on a “recognized stock exchange.” The Nasdaq Global Market, on which our ordinary shares are listed, is specified as a recognized stock exchange for this purpose by Irish company law.

 

The number of shares held by our subsidiaries at any time will count as treasury shares and will be included in any calculation of the permitted treasury share threshold of 10% of the nominal value of our issued share capital. While a subsidiary holds shares of ours, it cannot exercise any voting rights in respect of those shares. The acquisition of our shares by a subsidiary of ours must be funded out of distributable reserves of the subsidiary.

 

Lien on Shares, Calls on Shares and Forfeiture of Shares

 

Our articles of association provide that we will have a first and paramount lien on every share for all debts and liabilities of any shareholder to the company, whether presently due or not, payable in respect of such share. Subject to the terms of their allotment, directors may call for any unpaid amounts in respect of any shares to be paid, and if payment is not made within 14 days after notice demanding payment, we may sell the shares. These provisions are

 

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standard inclusions in the articles of association of an Irish company limited by shares and will only be applicable to our shares that have not been fully paid up. See “—Transfer and Registration of Shares.”

 

Consolidation and Division; Subdivision

 

Under our articles of association, we may, by ordinary resolution (unless the directors determine otherwise), consolidate and divide all or any of our issued share capital into a smaller number of shares of larger nominal value than our existing shares or subdivide all or any of our issued share capital into smaller amounts than is fixed by our memorandum of association, provided that the proportion between the amount paid for such share and the amount, if any, unpaid on each reduced share after the subdivision remains the same.

 

Reduction of Share Capital

 

We may, by ordinary resolution (unless the directors determine otherwise), reduce our authorized but unissued share capital in any way. We also may, by special resolution and subject to confirmation by the Irish High Court, reduce or cancel our issued share capital in any manner permitted by the Irish Companies Act.

 

Annual Meetings of Shareholders

 

We are required to hold an annual general meeting within 18 months of incorporation and at intervals of no more than 15 months thereafter, provided that an annual general meeting is held in each calendar year following the first annual general meeting and no more than nine months after our fiscal year-end. Subject to Section 176 of the Irish Companies Act, all general meetings may be held outside of Ireland.

 

Notice of an annual general meeting must be given to all of our shareholders and to our auditors. Our articles of association provide for a minimum notice period of 21 clear days (i.e. 21 days excluding the day when the notice is given or deemed to be given and the day of the event for which it is given or on which it is to take effect), which is the minimum permitted under Irish law.

 

The only matters which must, as a matter of Irish company law, be transacted at an annual general meeting are the consideration of the statutory financial statements, report of the directors, report of the statutory auditors, review by the members of the company’s affairs and the appointment or re-appointment of the statutory auditors.

 

At any annual general meeting, only such business may be conducted as has been brought before the meeting:

 

·                  in the notice of the meeting;

 

·                  by or at the direction of the Board of Directors;

 

·                  in certain circumstances, at the direction of the Irish High Court;

 

·                  as required by law; or

 

·                  that the chairman of the meeting determines is properly within the scope of the meeting.

 

In addition, and subject to compliance with our articles of association, shareholders entitled to vote at an annual general meeting may propose business to be considered thereat.

 

Extraordinary General Meetings of Shareholders

 

Our extraordinary general meetings may be convened by (i) the Board of Directors, (ii) on requisition of the shareholders holding not less than 10% of our paid up share capital carrying voting rights, (iii) on requisition of our auditors; or (iv) in exceptional cases, by order of the Irish High Court. Extraordinary general meetings are generally held for the purpose of approving shareholder resolutions as may be required from time to time. At any extraordinary general meeting, only such business will be conducted as is set forth in the notice thereof or is proposed pursuant to and in accordance with the procedures and requirements set out in the articles of association.

 

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Notice of an extraordinary general meeting must be given to all of our shareholders and to our auditors. Under Irish law and our articles of association, the minimum notice periods are 21 clear days’ notice in writing for an extraordinary general meeting to approve a special resolution and 14 clear days’ notice in writing for any other extraordinary general meeting.

 

In the case of an extraordinary general meeting convened by our shareholders, the proposed purpose of the meeting must be set out in the requisition notice. Upon receipt of any such valid requisition notice, our Board of Directors has 21 days to convene a meeting of our shareholders to vote on the matters set out in the requisition notice. This meeting must be held within two months of the receipt of the requisition notice. If the Board of Directors does not convene the meeting within such 21-day period, the requisitioning shareholders, or any of them representing more than one half of the total voting rights of all of them, may themselves convene a meeting, which meeting must be held within three months of our receipt of the requisition notice.

 

If the Board of Directors becomes aware that our net assets are not greater than half of the amount of our called-up share capital, our directors must convene an extraordinary general meeting of our shareholders not later than 28 days from the date that the fact is known to a director.

 

Quorum for General Meetings

 

Our articles of association provide that no business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present. One or more shareholders present in person or by proxy at any meeting of shareholders holding not less than a majority of the issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting in question will constitute a quorum for such meeting.

 

Voting

 

Our articles of association provide that all votes will be decided on a poll and that the board or the chairman may determine the manner in which the poll is to be taken and the manner in which the votes are to be counted.

 

Every shareholder is entitled to one vote for each ordinary share that he or she holds as of the record date for the meeting. Voting rights may be exercised by shareholders registered in our share register as of the record date for the meeting or by a duly appointed proxy, which proxy need not be a shareholder. Where interests in shares are held by a nominee trust company, this company may exercise the rights of the beneficial holders on their behalf as their proxy. All proxies must be appointed in the manner prescribed by our articles of association, which provide that our Board of Directors may permit shareholders to notify us of their proxy appointments electronically.

 

In accordance with our articles of association, our directors may from time to time authorize the issuance of preferred shares. These preferred shares may have such voting rights as may be specified in the terms of such preferred shares (e.g., they may carry more votes per share than ordinary shares). Treasury shares or shares of ours that are held by our subsidiaries will not be entitled to be voted at general meetings of shareholders.

 

Irish company law requires special resolutions of the shareholders at a general meeting to approve certain matters. Examples of matters requiring special resolutions include:

 

·                  amending the objects or memorandum of association;

 

·                  amending the articles of association;

 

·                  approving a change of name;

 

·                  authorizing the entering into of a guarantee or provision of security in connection with a loan, quasi-loan or credit transaction to a director or connected person;

 

·                  opting out of pre-emption rights on the issuance of new shares;

 

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·                  re-registration from a public limited company to a private company;

 

·                  purchase of own shares off-market;

 

·                  reduction of issued share capital;

 

·                  sanctioning a compromise/scheme of arrangement;

 

·                  resolving that the company be wound up by the Irish courts;

 

·                  resolving in favor of a shareholders’ voluntary winding-up;

 

·                  re-designation of shares into different share classes;

 

·                  setting the re-issue price of treasury shares; and

 

·                  variation of class rights attaching to classes of shares (where our articles of association do not provide otherwise).

 

Neither Irish law nor any of our constituent document places limitations on the right of non-resident or foreign owners to vote or hold our shares.

 

Variation of Rights Attaching to a Class or Series of Shares

 

Under our articles of association and the Irish Companies Act, any variation of class rights attaching to our issued shares must be approved by an ordinary resolution passed at a general meeting of the shareholders of the affected class or with the consent in writing of the holders of a majority of the issued shares of that class of shares entitled to vote on such variation. The rights conferred upon the holder of any pre-existing issued shares shall not be deemed to be varied by the issuance of any preferred shares.

 

The provisions of our articles of association relating to general meetings apply to general meetings of the holders of any class of shares except that the necessary quorum is determined in reference to the shares of the holders of the class. Accordingly, for general meetings of holders of a particular class of shares, a quorum consists of one or more shareholders present in person or by proxy holding not less than a majority of the issued and outstanding shares of the class entitled to vote at the meeting in question.

 

Inspection of Books and Records

 

Under Irish law, shareholders have the right to: (i) receive a copy of our memorandum and articles of association and any act of the Irish Government which alters our memorandum; (ii) inspect and obtain copies of the minutes of general meetings and any resolutions; (iii) inspect and receive a copy of the register of shareholders, register of directors and secretaries, register of directors’ interests and other statutory registers maintained by us; (iv) receive copies of statutory financial statements and directors’ and auditors’ reports which have previously been sent to shareholders prior to an annual general meeting; and (v) receive statements of financial position of any subsidiary of ours which have previously been sent to shareholders prior to an annual general meeting for the preceding ten years. Our auditors will also have the right to inspect all of our books, records and vouchers. The auditors’ report must be circulated to the shareholders with our financial statements prepared in accordance with Irish law, 21 clear days before the annual general meeting and must be read to the shareholders at our annual general meeting.

 

Acquisitions

 

An Irish public limited company may be acquired in a number of ways, including:

 

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·                  a court-approved scheme of arrangement under the Irish Companies Act. A scheme of arrangement with shareholders requires a court order from the Irish High Court and the approval of a majority in number representing 75% in value of the shareholders present and voting in person or by proxy at a meeting called to approve the scheme;

 

·                  through a tender or takeover offer by a third party, in accordance with the Irish Takeover Rules and the Irish Companies Act, for all of our shares. Where the holders of 80% or more of our shares (excluding any shares already beneficially owned by the bidder) have accepted an offer for their shares, the remaining shareholders may also be statutorily required to transfer their shares, unless, within one month, the non-tendering shareholders can obtain an Irish court order otherwise providing. If the bidder does not exercise its “squeeze-out” right, then the non-accepting shareholders also have a statutory right to require the bidder to acquire their shares on the same terms as the original offer, or such other terms as the bidder and the non-tendering shareholders may agree or on such term as an Irish court, on application of the bidder or non-tendering shareholder, may order. If our shares were to be listed on the Irish Stock Exchange, or the ISE, or another regulated stock exchange in the European Union, the aforementioned 80% threshold would be increased to 90%;

 

·                  by way of a transaction with an EU-incorporated company under the EU Cross-Border Mergers Directive 2005/56/EC. Such a transaction must be approved by a special resolution. If we are being merged with another EU company under the EU Cross-Border Mergers Directive 2005/56/EC and the consideration payable to our shareholders is not all in the form of cash, our shareholders may be entitled to require their shares to be acquired at fair value; and

 

·                  by way of a merger with another Irish company under the Irish Companies Act which must be approved by a special resolution and by the Irish High Court.

 

Appraisal Rights

 

Generally, under Irish law, shareholders of an Irish company do not have dissenters’ or appraisal rights. Under the European Communities (Cross-Border Merger) Regulations 2008, as amended, governing the merger of an Irish company limited by shares and a company incorporated in the European Economic Area (the European Economic Area includes all member states of the European Union and Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) and the other company is the surviving entity, a shareholder (i) who voted against the special resolution approving the transaction or (ii) of a company in which 90% of the shares are held by the other party to the transaction has the right to request that the company acquire its shares for cash at a price determined in accordance with the share exchange ratio set out in the acquisition agreement. In addition, a dissenting shareholder in a successful tender offer for an Irish company may, by application to the Irish High Court, object to the compulsory squeeze-out provisions.

 

Disclosure of Interests in Shares

 

Under the Irish Companies Act, our shareholders must notify us if, as a result of a transaction, the shareholder will become interested in 3% or more of our shares or if, as a result of a transaction, a shareholder who was interested in 3% or more of our shares ceases to be so interested. Where a shareholder is interested in 3% or more of our shares, the shareholder must notify us of any alteration of his or her interest that brings his or her total holding through the nearest whole percentage number, whether an increase or a reduction. The relevant percentage figure is calculated by reference to the aggregate nominal value of the shares in which the shareholder is interested as a proportion of the entire nominal value of our issued share capital (or any such class of share capital in issue). Where the percentage level of the shareholder’s interest does not amount to a whole percentage, this figure may be rounded down to the next whole number. We must be notified within five business days of the transaction or alteration of the shareholder’s interests that gave rise to the notification requirement. If a shareholder fails to comply with these notification requirements, the shareholder’s rights in respect of any of our shares it holds will not be enforceable, either directly or indirectly. However, such person may apply to the court to have the rights attaching to such shares reinstated.

 

In addition to these disclosure requirements, we, under the Irish Companies Act, may, by notice in writing, require a person whom we know or have reasonable cause to believe to be, or at any time during the three years

 

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immediately preceding the date on which such notice is issued to have been, interested in shares comprised in our relevant share capital to: (i) indicate whether or not it is the case and (ii) where such person holds or has during that time held an interest in our ordinary shares, to provide additional information, including the person’s own past or present interests in our shares. If the recipient of the notice fails to respond within the reasonable time period specified in the notice, we may apply to court for an order directing that the affected shares be subject to certain restrictions, as prescribed by the Irish Companies Act, as follows:

 

·                  any transfer of those shares, or in the case of unissued shares any transfer of the right to be issued with shares and any issue of shares, will be void;

 

·                  no voting rights will be exercisable in respect of those shares;

 

·                  no further shares will be issued in right of those shares or in pursuance of any offer made to the holder of those shares; and

 

·                  no payment will be made of any sums due from us on those shares, whether in respect of capital or otherwise.

 

The court may also order that shares subject to any of these restrictions be sold with the restrictions terminating upon the completion of the sale.

 

In the event we are in an offer period pursuant to the Irish Takeover Rules, accelerated disclosure provisions apply for persons holding an interest in our securities of 1.0% or more.

 

Irish Takeover Rules

 

A transaction in which a third party seeks to acquire 30% or more of our voting rights will be governed by the Irish Takeover Panel Act 1997 and the Irish Takeover Rules made thereunder and will be regulated by the Irish Takeover Panel. The “General Principles” of the Irish Takeover Rules and certain important aspects of the Irish Takeover Rules are described below.

 

General Principles

 

The Irish Takeover Rules are built on the following General Principles, which will apply to any transaction regulated by the Irish Takeover Panel:

 

·                  in the event of an offer, all holders of securities of the target company should be afforded equivalent treatment and, if a person acquires control of a company, the other holders of securities must be protected;

 

·                  the holders of the securities in the target company must have sufficient time and information to enable them to reach a properly informed decision on the offer;

 

·                  where it advises the holders of securities, the board of the target company must give its views on the effects of implementation of the offer on employment, conditions of employment and the locations of the target company’s places of business;

 

·                  the board of the target company must act in the interests of the company as a whole and must not deny the holders of securities the opportunity to decide on the merits of the offer;

 

·                  false markets must not be created in the securities of the target company, the bidder or of any other company concerned by the offer in such a way that the rise or fall of the prices of the securities becomes artificial and the normal functioning of the markets is distorted;

 

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·                  a bidder must announce an offer only after ensuring that he or she can fulfil in full, any cash consideration, if such is offered, and after taking all reasonable measures to secure the implementation of any other type of consideration;

 

·                  a target company must not be hindered in the conduct of its affairs for longer than is reasonable by an offer for its securities; and

 

·                  a substantial acquisition of securities (whether such acquisition is to be effected by one transaction or a series of transactions) shall take place only at an acceptable speed and shall be subject to adequate and timely disclosure.

 

Mandatory Bid

 

Under certain circumstances, a person who acquires shares or other voting rights in us may be required under the Irish Takeover Rules to make a mandatory cash offer for our remaining outstanding shares at a price not less than the highest price paid for the shares by the acquirer (or any parties acting in concert with the acquirer) during the previous 12 months. This mandatory bid requirement is triggered if an acquisition of shares would increase the aggregate holding of an acquirer (including the holdings of any parties acting in concert with the acquirer) to shares representing 30% or more of our voting rights, unless the Irish Takeover Panel otherwise consents. An acquisition of shares by a person holding (together with its concert parties) shares representing between 30% or more of our voting rights would also trigger the mandatory bid requirement if, after giving effect to the acquisition, the percentage of the voting rights held by that person (together with its concert parties) would increase by 0.05% within a 12-month period. Any person (excluding any parties acting in concert with the holder) holding shares representing more than 50% of the voting rights of a company is not subject to these mandatory offer requirements in purchasing additional securities.

 

Voluntary Bid; Requirements to Make a Cash Offer and Minimum Price Requirements

 

If a person makes a voluntary offer to acquire outstanding ordinary shares of ours, the offer price must be no less than the highest price paid for our shares by the bidder or its concert parties during the three-month period prior to the commencement of the offer period. The Irish Takeover Panel has the power to extend the “look back” period to 12 months if the Irish Takeover Panel, taking into account the General Principles, believes it is appropriate to do so.

 

If the bidder or any party acting in concert with it has acquired our ordinary shares (i) during the period of 12 months prior to the commencement of the offer period which represent more than 10% of our total ordinary shares or (ii) at any time after the commencement of the offer period, the offer must be in cash (or accompanied by a full cash alternative) and the price per ordinary share must not be less than the highest price paid by the bidder or any party acting in concert with it during, in the case of (i), the 12-month period prior to the commencement of the offer period and, in the case of (ii), the offer period. The Irish Takeover Panel may apply this rule to a bidder who, together with any party acting in concert with it, has acquired less than 10% of our total ordinary shares in the 12-month period prior to the commencement of the offer period if the Irish Takeover Panel, taking into account the General Principles, considers it just and proper to do so.

 

An offer period will generally commence from the date of the first announcement of the offer or proposed offer.

 

Substantial Acquisition Rules

 

The Irish Takeover Rules also contain rules governing substantial acquisitions of shares which restrict the speed at which a person may increase his or her holding of shares and rights over shares to an aggregate of between 15% and 30% of our voting rights. Except in certain circumstances, an acquisition or series of acquisitions of shares or rights over shares representing 10% or more of our voting rights is prohibited if such acquisition(s), when aggregated with shares or rights already held, would result in the acquirer holding 15% or more but less than 30% of our voting rights and such acquisitions are made within a period of seven days. These rules also require accelerated disclosure of acquisitions of shares or rights over shares relating to such holdings.

 

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Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Shareholder Rights Plan

 

Our articles of association expressly authorize our Board of Directors to adopt a shareholder rights plan, subject to applicable law.

 

Frustrating Action

 

Under the Irish Takeover Rules, our Board of Directors is not permitted to take any action which might frustrate an offer for our shares once our Board of Directors has received an approach which may lead to an offer or has reason to believe an offer is imminent, subject to certain exceptions. Potentially frustrating actions such as (i) the issue of shares, options or convertible securities, (ii) material acquisitions or disposals, (iii) entering into contracts other than in the ordinary course of business or (iv) any action, other than seeking alternative offers, which may result in frustration of an offer, are prohibited during the course of an offer or at any time during which the Board of Directors has reason to believe an offer is imminent. Exceptions to this prohibition are available where:

 

·                  the action is approved by our shareholders at a general meeting; or

 

·                  the Irish Takeover Panel has given its consent, where:

 

·                  it is satisfied the action would not constitute frustrating action;

 

·                  our shareholders that hold 50% of the voting rights state in writing that they approve the proposed action and would vote in favor of it at a general meeting;

 

·                  the action is taken in accordance with a contract entered into prior to the announcement of the offer; or

 

·                  the decision to take such action was made before the announcement of the offer and either has been at least partially implemented or is in the ordinary course of business.

 

Further Provisions

 

Our articles of association provide that, subject to certain exceptions, we may not engage in certain business combinations with any person that acquires beneficial ownership of 15% or more of our outstanding voting shares for a period of three years following the date on which the person became a 15% shareholder unless: (i) a committee of our disinterested directors approved the business combination; and (ii) in certain circumstances, the business combination is authorized by a special resolution of disinterested shareholders.

 

Certain other provisions of Irish law or our memorandum and articles of association may be considered to have anti-takeover effects, including those described under the following captions: “—Capital Structure—Authorized Share Capital”, “—Pre-emption Rights, Share Warrants and Share Options,” “—Disclosure of Interests in Shares,” “—Comparative Rights—Vacancies on the Board of Directors, Board System; Election of Directors and Quorum, Extraordinary General Meeting.”

 

Insider Dealing

 

The Irish Takeover Rules also provide that no person, other than the bidder, who is privy to confidential price-sensitive information concerning an offer made in respect of the acquisition of a company (or a class of its securities) or a contemplated offer shall deal in relevant securities of the target during the period from the time at which such person first has reason to suppose that such an offer, or an approach with a view to such an offer being made, is contemplated to the time of (i) the announcement of such offer or approach or (ii) the termination of discussions relating to such offer, whichever is earlier.

 

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Corporate Governance

 

Our articles of association allocate authority over the day-to-day management of the company to the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate any of its powers, authorities and discretions (with power to sub-delegate) to any committee, or delegate to any director, officer or member of management of ours or any of our subsidiaries such of its powers as it considers desirable to be exercised by him or her, but regardless, the directors will remain responsible, as a matter of Irish law, for the proper management of the affairs of the company. Committees may meet and adjourn as they determine proper. Unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, the quorum necessary for the transaction of business at any committee meeting shall be a majority of the members of the committee.

 

Legal Name; Incorporation; Fiscal Year; Registered Office

 

Our legal and commercial name is Nabriva Therapeutics plc. We were incorporated in Ireland on March 1, 2017 as a public limited company, under the name Hyacintho 2 Limited (registration number 599588) and were renamed Nabriva Therapeutics plc on April 10, 2017. Our registered address is 25-28 North Wall Quay, IFSC, Dublin 1, Ireland. As set forth in our memorandum of association, our purpose, among other things, is to carry on the business of a holding company and to coordinate the administration, finances and activities of any subsidiaries or associated companies.

 

Appointment of Directors

 

The Irish Companies Act provides for a minimum of two directors. Our articles of association provide that the number of directors will be not less than two and not more than 12. The authorized number of directors within the prescribed range will be determined solely by our Board of Directors and does not require approval or ratification by the shareholders in a general meeting. Our directors will be elected by way of an ordinary resolution at a general meeting save that directors in contested elections will be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the relevant general meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. If the number of the directors is reduced below the fixed minimum number, the remaining director or directors may appoint an additional director or additional directors to make up such minimum or may convene a general meeting for the purpose of making such appointment. Casual vacancies may be filled by the Board of Directors.

 

No person may be appointed director unless nominated in accordance with our articles of association. Our articles of association provide that, with respect to an annual or extraordinary general meeting of shareholders, nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made by (i) the affirmative vote of our Board of Directors or a committee thereof, (ii) any shareholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures provided for in our articles of association, or (iii) with respect to election at an extraordinary general meeting requisitioned in accordance with section 178 of the Irish Companies Act, by a shareholder who holds ordinary shares or other shares carrying the general right to vote at general meetings of the company and who makes such nomination in the written requisition of the extraordinary general meeting in accordance with our articles of association and the Irish Companies Act relating to nominations of directors and the proper bringing of special business before an extraordinary general meeting.

 

Removal of Directors

 

Under the Irish Companies Act, the shareholders may, by an ordinary resolution, remove a director from office before the expiration of his or her term at a meeting held on no less than 28 days’ notice and at which the director is entitled to be heard. The power of removal is without prejudice to any claim for damages for breach of contract (e.g., employment contract) that the director may have against the company in respect of his or her removal.

 

Our Board of Directors may fill any vacancy occurring on the Board of Directors. If the Board of Directors fills a vacancy, the director shall hold office until the next election of directors and until his or her successor shall be elected. A vacancy on the Board of Directors created by the removal of a director may be filled by our Board of Directors.

 

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Director Interested Transactions

 

Under the Irish Companies Act and our articles of association, a director who has an interest in a proposal, arrangement or contract is required to declare the nature of his or her interest at the first opportunity either (i) at a meeting of the board at which such proposal, arrangement or contract is first considered (provided such director knows this interest then exists, or in any other case, at the first meeting of the board after learning that he or she is or has become so interested) or (ii) by providing a general notice to the directors declaring that he or she is to be regarded as interested in any proposal, arrangement or contract with a particular person, and after giving such general notice will not be required to give special notice relating to any particular transaction. Provided the interested director makes such required disclosure, he or she shall be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting regarding the relevant proposal, arrangement or contract and will be permitted to vote on such proposal, arrangement or contract.

 

Pursuant to our articles of association, it is within the directors’ sole discretion to determine their compensation.

 

Borrowing

 

Pursuant to our articles of association, among the directors’ powers are the right to borrow money and to mortgage or charge the company’s undertaking, property and uncalled capital or any part thereof and to issue debentures, debenture stock, mortgages, bonds or such other securities whether outright or as security for any debt, liability or obligation of the company or of any third party.

 

Duration; Dissolution; Rights upon Liquidation

 

Our duration will be unlimited. We may be dissolved and wound up at any time by way of a shareholders’ voluntary winding up or a creditors’ winding up. In the case of a shareholders’ voluntary winding-up, a special resolution of shareholders is required. We may also be dissolved by way of court order on the application of a creditor, or by the Companies Registration Office as an enforcement measure where we have failed to file certain returns. We may also be dissolved by the Director of Corporate Enforcement in Ireland where the affairs of the company have been investigated by an inspector and it appears from the report or any information obtained by the Director of Corporate Enforcement that we should be wound up.

 

The rights of the shareholders to a return of our assets on dissolution or winding up, following the settlement of all claims of creditors, are prescribed in our articles of association or the terms of any preferred shares issued by the directors from time to time. The holders of preferred shares in particular may have the right to priority in a dissolution or winding up. Pursuant to our articles of association, subject to the priorities of any creditors, the assets will be distributed to ordinary shareholders in proportion to the paid-up nominal value or credited as paid up value of the shares held at the commencement of the winding up. Our articles of association provide that our ordinary shareholders are entitled to participate pro rata in a winding up, but their right to do so may be subject to the rights of any preferred shareholders to participate under the terms of any series or class of preferred shares.

 

Uncertificated Shares

 

Unless otherwise provided for by the Board of Directors or the rights attaching to or by the terms of issue of any particular shares, or to the extent required by any exchange, depositary or any operator of any clearance or settlement system or by law, holders of our ordinary shares will not have the right to require us to issue certificates for their shares.

 

Stock Exchange Listing

 

Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NBRV.”  Our ordinary shares are not listed on the Irish Stock Exchange.

 

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No Sinking Fund

 

Our shares have no sinking fund provisions.

 

Transfer and Registration of Shares

 

Our transfer agent is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent maintains our share register, and registration in the share register will be determinative of membership in us. A shareholder of ours who only holds shares beneficially will not be the holder of record of such shares. Instead, the depositary or other nominee will be the holder of record of those shares. Accordingly, a transfer of shares from a person who holds such shares beneficially to a person who also holds such shares beneficially through a depositary or other nominee will not be registered in our official share register, as the depositary or other nominee will remain the record holder of any such shares.

 

A written instrument of transfer is required under Irish law in order to register on our official share register any transfer of shares (i) from a person who holds such shares directly to any other person, (ii) from a person who holds such shares beneficially to a person who holds such shares directly or (iii) from a person who holds such shares beneficially to another person who holds such shares beneficially where the transfer involves a change in the depositary or other nominee that is the record owner of the transferred shares. An instrument of transfer is also required for a shareholder who directly holds shares to transfer those shares into his or her own broker account (or vice versa). Such instruments of transfer may give rise to Irish stamp duty, which must be paid prior to registration of the transfer on our official Irish share register. However, a shareholder who directly holds shares may transfer those shares into his or her own broker account (or vice versa) without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided there is no change in the ultimate beneficial ownership of the shares as a result of the transfer and the transfer is not made in contemplation of a sale of the shares.

 

Any transfer of our shares that is subject to Irish stamp duty will not be registered in the name of the buyer unless an instrument of transfer is duly stamped and provided to our transfer agent. Our articles of association allow us, in our absolute discretion, to create an instrument of transfer and pay (or procure the payment of) any stamp duty, which is the legal obligation of a buyer. In the event of any such payment, we are (on behalf of ourselves or our affiliates) entitled to (i) seek reimbursement from the buyer or seller (at its discretion), (ii) set-off the amount of the stamp duty against future dividends payable to the buyer or seller (at its discretion) and (iii) claim a lien against the shares on which it has paid stamp duty. Parties to a share transfer may assume that any stamp duty arising in respect of a transaction in our shares has been paid unless one or both of such parties is otherwise notified by us.

 

Our memorandum and articles of association delegate to our secretary (or such other person as may be nominated by the secretary for this purpose) the authority to execute an instrument of transfer on behalf of a transferring party.

 

In order to help ensure that the official share register is regularly updated to reflect trading of our shares occurring through normal electronic systems, we intend to regularly produce any required instruments of transfer in connection with any transactions for which we pay stamp duty (subject to the reimbursement and set-off rights described above). In the event that we notify one or both of the parties to a share transfer that we believe stamp duty is required to be paid in connection with the transfer and that we will not pay the stamp duty, the parties may either themselves arrange for the execution of the required instrument of transfer (and may request a form of instrument of transfer from us for this purpose) or request that we execute an instrument of transfer on behalf of the transferring party in a form determined by us. In either event, if the parties to the share transfer have the instrument of transfer duly stamped (to the extent required) and then provide it to our transfer agent, the buyer will be registered as the legal owner of the relevant shares on our official Irish share register (subject to the matters described below).

 

The directors may suspend registration of transfers from time to time, not exceeding 30 days in aggregate each year.

 

Differences in Corporate Law

 

The applicable provisions of the Irish Companies Act differ from laws applicable to U.S. corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of certain differences between the provisions of the Irish Companies Act applicable to us and provisions of our memorandum and articles of association and the Delaware General

 

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Corporation Law relating to shareholders’ rights and protections. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to Delaware law, Irish law and our memorandum and articles of association.

 

 

 

Ireland

 

Delaware

 

 

 

 

 

Board System

 

Under Irish law, a company has a unitary board structure and it is the responsibility of the board of directors to manage the business of the company in the best interests of the shareholders of the company.

 

Under Delaware law, a corporation has a unitary board structure and it is the responsibility of the board of directors to appoint and oversee the management of the corporation on behalf of and in the best interests of the shareholders of the corporation.

Management is responsible for running the corporation and overseeing its day-to-day operations.

 

 

 

 

 

Number of Directors

 

The Irish Companies Act provides for a minimum of two directors. Nabriva Ireland’s articles of association provide that the number of directors will not be less than two and not more than 12. Nabriva Ireland’s articles of association provide that the authorized number of directors within the prescribed range will be determined solely by the Nabriva Ireland Board and does not require approval or ratification by the shareholders in general meeting.

 

Under Delaware law, a corporation must have at least one director and the number of directors shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the bylaws.

 

 

 

 

 

Removal of Directors

 

Under the Irish Companies Act and notwithstanding anything contained in Nabriva Ireland’s memorandum and articles of association or in any agreement between Nabriva Ireland and a director, the shareholders may, by ordinary resolution, remove a director from office before the expiration of his or her term, at a meeting held no less than 28 days’ notice and at which the director is entitled to be heard. Because of this provision of the Irish Companies Act, a director may be so removed before the expiration of his or her period of office. The power of removal is without prejudice to any claim for damages for breach of contract (e.g., employment contract) that the director may have againstNabriva Ireland in respect of his or her removal.

 

Under Delaware law, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors, except (a) unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise, in the case of a corporation whose board of directors is classified, shareholders may effect such removal only for cause, or (b) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board of directors is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his removal would be sufficient to elect him if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he is a part.

 

 

 

 

 

Vacancies on the Board of Directors

 

Nabriva Ireland’s memorandum and articles of association provide that the Board of Directors may fill any vacancy

 

Under Delaware law, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors then

 

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occurring on the Board of Directors. During any vacancy on the Board, the remaining directors will have full power to act as the Board but, if and so long as, their number is reduced below the minimum number required under the memorandum and articles of association, the continuing directors or director may only act to appoint additional directors up to that minimum number or to summon a general meeting of Nabriva Ireland to elect directors and for no other purpose.

 

in office (even though less than a quorum) or by a sole remaining director unless (a) otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or by-laws of the corporation or (b) the certificate of incorporation directs that a particular class of stock is to elect such director, in which case a majority of the other directors elected by such class, or a sole remaining director elected by such class, will fill such vacancy.

 

 

 

 

 

Annual General Meeting

 

Nabriva Ireland is required to hold an annual general meeting within 18 months of incorporation and thereafter at intervals of no more than 15 months from the previous annual general meeting, provided that an annual general meeting is held in each calendar year following the first annual general meeting and no more than nine months after Nabriva Ireland’s fiscal year-end. Each general meeting will be held at such time and place as designated by the Nabriva Ireland Board of Directors and as specified in the notice of meeting. Subject to section 176 of the Irish Companies Act, all general meetings may be held outside of Ireland. The only matters that must, as a matter of Irish law, be transacted at an annual general meeting are the consideration of the statutory financial statements, report of the directors, report of the statutory auditors, review by the shareholders of the company’s affairs and the appointment or re-appointment of the statutory auditors. If no resolution is made in respect of the reappointment of an existing auditor at an annual general meeting, the existing auditor will be deemed to have continued in office.

 

Under Delaware law, the annual meeting of stockholders shall be held at such place, on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or as provided in the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.

 

 

 

 

 

General Meeting

 

Under Irish law, extraordinary general meetings of Nabriva Ireland may be convened by (i) the Board of Directors, (ii) on requisition of the shareholders holding not less than 10% of the paid up share capital of Nabriva Ireland carrying voting rights, (iii) on requisition of Nabriva Ireland’s auditors; or (iv) in exceptional cases, by order of the Irish High Court.

 

Under Delaware law, special meetings of the stockholders may be called by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.

 

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If the Nabriva Ireland board of directors becomes aware that the net assets of Nabriva Ireland are not greater than half of the amount of Nabriva Ireland’s called-up share capital, it must convene an extraordinary general meeting of Nabriva Ireland’s shareholders not later than 28 days from the date that the directors learn of this fact to consider how to address the situation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notice of General Meetings

 

Under Irish law, notice of an annual or extraordinary general meeting must be given to all Nabriva Ireland shareholders and to the auditors of Nabriva Ireland. The Nabriva Ireland memorandum and articles of association provide for a minimum notice period of 21 days for an annual general meeting, which is the minimum permitted under Irish law. Under Irish law and the Nabriva Ireland memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice periods are 21 days’ notice in writing for an extraordinary general meeting to approve a special resolution and 14 days’ notice in writing for any other extraordinary general meeting.

 

Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, written notice of any meeting of the stockholders must be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at the meeting not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting and shall specify the place, date, hour, and purpose or purposes of the meeting.

 

 

 

 

 

Proxy

 

Under Irish law, a shareholder may designate another person to attend, speak and vote at a general meeting of the company on their behalf by proxy, which proxy need not be a shareholder. Where interests in shares are held by a nominee trust company, this company may exercise the rights of the beneficial holders on their behalf as their proxy.

 

Under Delaware law, at any meeting of stockholders, a stockholder may designate another person to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A director of a Delaware corporation may not issue a proxy representing the director’s voting rights as a director.

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-emptive Rights

 

Under Irish law, certain statutory pre-emption rights apply automatically in favor of shareholders when shares are to be issued for cash. However, Nabriva Ireland has opted out of these pre-emption rights in its articles of association as permitted under Irish law. Irish law requires this opt-out to be renewed every five years by a special resolution of the shareholders. If the opt-out is not renewed, shares issued for cash must be offered to existing shareholders of Nabriva Ireland on a pro rata basis to their existing shareholding before the shares may be issued to any new shareholders. Statutory pre-emption

 

Under Delaware law, stockholders have no pre-emptive rights to subscribe to additional issues of stock or to any security convertible into such stock unless, and except to the extent that, such rights are expressly provided for in the certificate of incorporation.

 

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rights do not apply (i) when shares are issued for non-cash consideration (such as in a stock-for-stock acquisition), (ii) to the issue of non-equity shares (that is, shares that have the right to participate only up to a specified amount in any income or capital distribution) or (iii) where shares are issued pursuant to an employee stock option or similar equity plan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authority to Allot

 

Under Irish law, the board of directors may allot and issue shares (or rights to subscribe for or convert into shares) only with the prior authorization of shareholders, such authorization to be valid for a maximum period of five years, each as specified in the articles of association or relevant shareholder resolution. The Nabriva Ireland articles of association authorizes the allotment of shares for a period of five years from the date of adoption of the Nabriva Ireland articles of association, which authorization will need to be renewed by ordinary resolution upon expiration but may be sought more frequently for additional five year terms (or any shorter period).

 

Under Delaware law, if the corporation’s charter or certificate of incorporation so provides, the board of directors has the power to authorize the issuance of stock. It may authorize capital stock to be issued for consideration consisting of cash, any tangible or intangible property or any benefit to the corporation or any combination thereof. It may determine the amount of such consideration by approving a formula. In the absence of actual fraud in the transaction, the judgment of the directors as to the value of such consideration is conclusive.

 

 

 

 

 

Liability of Directors and Officers

 

Under Irish law, a company may not exempt its directors or company secretary from liability for negligence or a breach of duty. However, where a breach of duty has been established, directors or the company secretary may be statutorily exempted by an Irish court from personal liability for negligence or breach of duty if, among other things, the court determines that they have acted honestly and reasonably, and that they may fairly be excused as a result. Pursuant to Nabriva Ireland’s articles of association, its directors and secretary are indemnified to the extent permitted by the Irish Companies Acts. The aforementioned restrictions in the Irish Companies Act does not apply to executives who are not directors or the company secretary of Nabriva Ireland.

Under Irish law, shareholders may not agree to exempt a director or officer from any claim or right of action a shareholder may have, whether individually or in the right of a

 

Under Delaware law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may include a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation and its stockholders for damages arising from a breach of fiduciary duty as a director. However, no provision can limit the liability of a director for:

·             any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders;

 

·             acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

·             intentional or negligent payment of unlawful dividends or stock purchases or redemptions; or

 

·             any transaction from which the director derives an improper

 

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company, on account of any action taken or the failure to take any action in the performance of such director’s or officer’s duties to the company.

 

personal benefit.

 

 

 

 

 

Voting Rights

 

Nabriva Ireland’s articles of association provide that each Nabriva Ireland shareholder is entitled to one vote for each ordinary share that he or she holds as of the record date for the meeting.

Irish law requires approval of certain matters by “special resolution” of the shareholders at a general meeting. A special resolution requires the approval of not less than 75% of the votes of Nabriva Ireland’s shareholders cast at a general meeting at which a quorum is present. Ordinary resolutions, by contrast, require a simple majority of the votes of Nabriva Ireland cast at a general meeting at which a quorum is present.

 

Delaware law provides that, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder is entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.

 

 

 

 

 

Shareholder Vote on Certain Transactions

 

Pursuant to Irish law, shareholder approval in connection with a transaction involving Nabriva Ireland would be required under the following circumstances:

 

·             in connection with a scheme of arrangement, both a court order from the Irish High Court and the approval of a majority in number representing 75% in value of the shareholders present and voting in person or by proxy at a meeting called to approve such a scheme would be required;

 

·             in connection with an acquisition of Nabriva Ireland by way of a merger with an EU company under the EU Cross-Border Mergers Directive 2005/56/EC, approval by a special resolution of the shareholders would be required; and

 

·             in connection with a merger with an Irish company under the Irish Companies Act, approval by a special resolution of shareholders would be

 

Generally, under Delaware law, unless the certificate of incorporation provides for the vote of a larger portion of the stock, completion of a merger, consolidation, sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires:

 

·             the approval of the board of directors; and

 

·             approval by the vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding stock or, if the certificate of incorporation provides for more or less than one vote per share, a majority of the votes of the outstanding stock of a corporation entitled to vote on the matter.

 

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required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard of Conduct for Directors

 

The directors of Nabriva Ireland have certain statutory and fiduciary duties as a matter of Irish law. All of the directors have equal and overall responsibility for the management of Nabriva Ireland (although directors who also serve as employees may have additional responsibilities and duties arising under their employment agreements (if applicable), and it is likely that more will be expected of them in compliance with their duties than non-executive directors). The Irish Companies Act provides specifically for certain fiduciary duties of the directors of Irish companies, including duties:

 

·             to act in good faith and in the best interests of the company;

 

·             to act honestly and responsibly in relation to the company’s affairs;

 

·             to act in accordance with the company’s constitution and to exercise powers only for lawful purposes;

 

·             not to misuse the company’s property, information and/or opportunity;

·             not to fetter their independent judgment;

 

·             to avoid conflicts of interest;

 

·             to exercise care, skill and diligence; and

 

·             to have regard for the interests of the company’s shareholders.

 

Additional statutory duties under the Irish Companies Act include ensuring the maintenance of proper books of account, having annual accounts prepared, having an annual audit performed, and the duty to maintain certain registers and make certain filings as well as certain disclosures of personal

 

 

Delaware law does not contain specific provisions setting forth the standard of conduct of a director. The scope of the fiduciary duties of directors is generally determined by the courts of the State of Delaware. In general, directors have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interest of the stockholders.

Directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its shareholders. The duty of care generally requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself of all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He must not use his corporate position for personal gain or advantage. In general, but subject to certain exceptions, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Delaware courts have also imposed a heightened standard of conduct upon directors of a Delaware corporation who take any action designed to defeat a threatened change in control of the corporation.

In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break- up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the shareholders.

 

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interests.

 

For public limited companies like Nabriva Ireland, directors are under a specific duty to ensure that the company secretary has the skills or resources and the requisite knowledge and experience to discharge the role.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholder Suits

 

In Ireland, the decision to institute proceedings is generally taken by a company’s board of directors, who will usually be empowered to manage the company’s business. In certain limited circumstances, a shareholder may be entitled to bring a derivative action on behalf of the company. The central question at issue in deciding whether a minority shareholder may be permitted to bring a derivative action is whether, unless the action is brought, a wrong committed against the company would otherwise go un-redressed.

The principal case law in Ireland indicates that to bring a derivative action a person must first establish a prima facie case (i) that the company is entitled to the relief claimed and (ii) that the action falls within one of the five exceptions derived from case law, as follows:

 

(1) where an ultra vires or illegal act is perpetrated;

 

(2) where more than a bare majority is required to ratify the “wrong” complained of;

(3) where the shareholders’ personal rights are infringed;

 

(4) where a fraud has been perpetrated upon a minority by those in control; or

(5) where the justice of the case requires a minority to be permitted to institute proceedings.

 

Shareholders may also bring proceedings against the company where the affairs of the company are being conducted, or the powers of the directors are being exercised, in a manner oppressive to the shareholders or in

 

Under Delaware law, a stockholder may initiate a derivative action to enforce a right of a corporation if the corporation fails to enforce the right itself. The complaint must:

 

·             state that the plaintiff was a stockholder at the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains or that the plaintiffs shares thereafter devolved on the plaintiff by operation of law; and

·             allege with particularity the efforts made by the plaintiff to obtain the action the plaintiff desires from the directors and the reasons for the plaintiff’s failure to obtain the action; or

 

·             state the reasons for not making the effort.

 

Additionally, the plaintiff must remain a stockholder through the duration of the derivative suit. The action will not be dismissed or compromised without the approval of the Delaware Court of Chancery.

 

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disregard of their interests. Oppression connotes conduct that is burdensome, harsh or wrong. Conduct must relate to the internal management of the company. This is an Irish statutory remedy and the court can grant any order it sees fit, usually providing for the purchase or transfer of the shares of any shareholder.

 

 

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

General

 

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares that represent preferred shares. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent one or more of a particular series of preferred shares to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable interest in the number of preferred shares represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred share represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.

 

The preferred shares underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.

 

The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

 

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not a complete description of the terms of the depositary shares. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our memorandum and articles of association and the applicable prospectus supplement for the applicable series of preferred shares that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions

 

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred shares underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred shares.

 

If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

 

Liquidation Preference

 

If a series of preferred shares underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the proportion of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred shares, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Withdrawal of Shares

 

Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole preferred shares and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional preferred shares upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred shares thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

 

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Redemption of Depositary Shares

 

Whenever we redeem preferred shares held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing preferred shares so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred shares to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred shares to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the number of preferred shares represented by such depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

 

After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption or upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.

 

Voting the Preferred Shares

 

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred shares. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred shares will be the same date as the record date for the preferred shares. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of preferred shares represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of preferred shares represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any preferred shares except to the extent it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of preferred shares.

 

Charges of Depositary

 

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred shares and any redemption of the preferred shares. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred shares and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.

 

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

 

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:

 

·   all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or

 

·   there has been a final distribution of the preferred shares in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.

 

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Resignation and Removal of Depositary

 

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.

 

Notices

 

The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred shares. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred shares.

 

Limitation of Liability

 

Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either we or it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and their duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred shares unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred shares for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS AND PURCHASE UNITS

 

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from or sell to us, and obligating us to sell to or purchase from the holders, a specified number of ordinary shares, preferred shares or depositary shares at a future date or dates, which we refer to in this prospectus as purchase contracts. The price per ordinary share, preferred share or depositary share and the number of shares of each may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula set forth in the purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as part of units, often known as purchase units, consisting of one or more purchase contracts and beneficial interests in debt securities or any other securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or any combination of the foregoing, securing the holders’ obligations to purchase the ordinary shares, preferred shares or depositary shares under the purchase contracts.

 

The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders of the purchase units or vice versa, and these payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations under those contracts in a specified manner, including pledging their interest in another purchase contract.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the purchase contracts and purchase units, including, if applicable, collateral or depositary arrangements.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants to purchase ordinary shares, preferred shares, depositary shares or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, ordinary shares, preferred shares, depositary shares or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

·        the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

·        the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

·        the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

·        whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

·        whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

·        any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

·        the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

·        the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

·        the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

·        the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

·        if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred shares or depositary shares with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

·        if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred shares, depositary shares or ordinary shares will be separately transferable;

 

·        the number of ordinary shares, preferred shares or depositary shares purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

·        if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

·        information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

·        the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

·        any redemption or call provisions; and

 

·        any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

 

Each debt security, depositary share, purchase contract, purchase unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, depositary shares, purchase contracts, purchase units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

 

Global Securities

 

We may issue the debt securities, depositary shares, purchase contracts, purchase units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

 

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

 

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, warrant agreement or purchase unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or

 

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take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to depositary shares, warrants, purchase agreements or purchase units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

 

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell securities:

 

·        through underwriters;

 

·        through dealers;

 

·        through agents;

 

·        directly to purchasers; or

 

·        through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

 

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

 

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

·        at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

·        at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

·        at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

·        at negotiated prices.

 

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

 

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

·        the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

·        the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

·        any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

·        all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

·        any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

·        any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

 

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them,

 

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and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

 

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

 

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

·        the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

·        if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

 

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

 

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

 

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities

 

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initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

 

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

 

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, certain legal matters of U.S. federal law and New York State law will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered and certain legal matters with respect to Irish law will be passed upon by A&L Goodbody.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Nabriva Therapeutics plc as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.  The audit report covering the December 31, 2017 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph that states that Nabriva Therapeutics plc has incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.  The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustment that might result from the outcome of that uncertainty.

 

The financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2015 incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PwC Wirtschaftsprüfung GmbH, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

 

$225,000,000

 

Debt Securities
Ordinary Shares

Preferred Shares
Depositary Shares
Purchase Contracts
Purchase Units
Warrants

 


 

PROSPECTUS

 


 

           , 2018

 



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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.  Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

Set forth below are estimates (except in the case of the SEC registration fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

SEC registration fee

 

$

28,013

 

FINRA filing fee

 

$

34,250

 

Printing and engraving

 

*

 

Accounting services

 

*

 

Legal fees of registrant’s counsel

 

*

 

Transfer agent’s, trustee’s and depositary’s fees and expenses

 

*

 

Miscellaneous

 

*

 

Total

 

$

*

 

 


* These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.  Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Our articles of association contain indemnification for the benefit of our directors, company secretary and executive officers (and those of other group entities and affiliates) to the fullest extent permitted by Irish law. However, as to our directors and company secretary, this indemnity is limited under Irish law, which provides that a company may not exempt its directors or company secretary from liability for any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust. The Irish Companies Act prescribes that an advance commitment to indemnify only permits a company to pay the costs or to discharge the liability of a director or company secretary, where judgment is given in favor of the director or company secretary in any civil or criminal action in respect of such costs or liability, or where an Irish court grants relief because the director or company secretary acted honestly and reasonably and ought fairly to be excused. Any provision whereby an Irish company seeks to commit in advance to indemnify its directors or company secretary over and above the limitations imposed by the Irish Companies Act will be void, whether contained in its articles of association or any contract between the company and its director or company secretary. This restriction does not apply to our executive officers who are not members of our Board of Directors or our company secretary.

 

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers. Subject to the provisions of the Irish Companies Act, these indemnification agreements require us, among other things, to indemnify our directors and officers for certain expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by a director or officer in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service as one of our directors or officers, or any of our subsidiaries or any other company or enterprise to which the person provides services at our request.

 

We provide directors’ and officers’ liability insurance for our directors and officers against civil liabilities, which they may incur in connection with their activities on our behalf, including insurance coverage against liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Item 16.  Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.

 

Description

 

 

 

 

 

1.1*

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

4.1

 

Memorandum and Articles of Association of Nabriva Therapeutics plc (incorporated by reference to

 

 

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Exhibit 3.1 to Nabriva Therapeutics plc’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated as of June 26, 2017) (File No. 001-38132)

 

 

 

 

 

4.2

 

Form of Senior Indenture

 

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

Form of Subordinated Indenture

 

 

 

 

 

4.4

 

Form of Senior Note

 

 

 

 

 

4.5

 

Form of Subordinated Note

 

 

 

 

 

4.6*

 

Form of Deposit Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

4.7*

 

Form of Warrant Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

4.8*

 

Form of Purchase Contract Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

4.9*

 

Form of Unit Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

5.1

 

Opinion of A&L Goodbody

 

 

 

 

 

12.1

 

Calculation of Consolidated Ratios of Earnings to Fixed Charges and Consolidated Ratios of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and Preferred Share Dividends

 

 

 

 

 

23.1

 

Consent of PwC Wirtschaftsprüfung GmbH

 

 

 

 

 

23.2

 

Consent of KPMG LLP

 

 

 

 

 

23.3

 

Consent of A&L Goodbody (included in Exhibit 5.1)

 

 

 

 

 

24.1

 

Powers of Attorney (included on the signature pages to the Registration Statement)

 

 

 

 

 

25.1**

 

The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture

 

 

 

 

 

25.2**

 

The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

 

 


*              To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

**           To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Item 17.  Undertakings.

 

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(a)(1)                   To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)                                     to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”);

 

(ii)                                  to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which,

 

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individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)                               to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by a Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

(2)                                 That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at the time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)                                 To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)                                 That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i)                                     each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii)                                  each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5)                                 That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration

 

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statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)                                     any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)                                  any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

(iii)                               the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

(iv)                              any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)                                 That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

(i)                                     the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

(ii)                                  each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7)                                 That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(8)                                 If applicable, the undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transaction by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

 

(9)                                 The undersigned Registrant hereby undertake to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(10)                          Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the indemnification provisions described herein, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Dublin, Ireland on March 16, 2018.

 

 

NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Colin Broom

 

 

Name: Colin Broom

 

 

Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Nabriva Therapeutics plc hereby severally constitute and appoint Colin Broom and Gary Sender, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Nabriva Therapeutics plc to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Colin Broom

 

Chief Executive Officer and Director

 

March 16, 2018

Colin Broom

 

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Gary Sender

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

March 16, 2018

Gary Sender

 

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Daniel Burgess

 

Chairman of the Board

 

March 16, 2018

Daniel Burgess

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Axel Bolte

 

Director

 

March 16, 2018

Axel Bolte

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Mark Corrigan

 

Director

 

March 16, 2018

Mark Corrigan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ George Talbot

 

Director

 

March 16, 2018

George Talbot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Charles Rowland

 

Director

 

March 16, 2018

Charles Rowland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Stephen Webster

 

Director

 

March 16, 2018

Stephen Webster

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Carrie Bourdow

 

Director

 

March 16, 2018

Carrie Bourdow

 

 

 

 

 

NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

Authorized Representative in the United States

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Colin Broom

 

Name:

Colin Broom

 

Title:

Chief Executive Officer

 

 


Exhibit 4.2

 

NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

 

and

 


 

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of

 

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES

 



 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of
Trust Indenture Act
of 1939, as amended

 

Section of
Indenture

310(a)

 

6.09

310(b)

 

6.08

 

 

6.10

310(c)

 

Inapplicable

311(a)

 

6.13

311(b)

 

6.13

311(c)

 

Inapplicable

312(a)

 

4.01

 

 

4.04

312(b)

 

4.04(c)

312(c)

 

4.04(c)

313(a)

 

4.03

313(b)

 

4.03

313(c)

 

4.03

313(d)

 

4.03

314(a)

 

4.02

314(b)

 

Inapplicable

314(c)

 

2.04

 

 

8.04

 

 

9.01(c)

 

 

10.01(b)

 

 

11.05

314(d)

 

Inapplicable

314(e)

 

11.05

314(f)

 

Inapplicable

315(a)

 

6.01

 

 

6.02

315(b)

 

5.11

315(c)

 

6.01

315(d)

 

6.01

 

 

6.02

315(e)

 

5.12

316(a)

 

5.09

 

 

5.10

 

 

7.04

316(b)

 

5.06

 

 

5.10

316(c)

 

7.02

317(a)

 

5.04

317(b)

 

3.04

318(a)

 

11.07

 


(1)           This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 



 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

PAGE

 

 

ARTICLE 1                              DEFINITIONS

1

 

 

Section 1.01

Certain Terms Defined

1

 

 

 

ARTICLE 2                              SECURITIES

5

 

 

Section 2.01

Forms Generally

5

Section 2.02

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

6

Section 2.03

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

6

Section 2.04

Authentication and Delivery of Securities

8

Section 2.05

Execution of Securities

10

Section 2.06

Certificate of Authentication

10

Section 2.07

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

10

Section 2.08

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

11

Section 2.09

Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

13

Section 2.10

Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof

14

Section 2.11

Temporary Securities

14

 

 

 

ARTICLE 3                              COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

15

 

 

Section 3.01

Payment of Principal and Interest

15

Section 3.02

Offices for Payments, Etc.

15

Section 3.03

Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee

16

Section 3.04

Paying Agents

16

Section 3.05

Written Statement to Trustee

16

 

 

 

ARTICLE 4                              SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

17

 

 

Section 4.01

Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders

17

Section 4.02

Reports by the Issuer

17

Section 4.03

Reports by the Trustee

17

Section 4.04

Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders

17

 

 

 

ARTICLE 5                              REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

18

 

 

Section 5.01

Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default

18

Section 5.02

Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt

20

Section 5.03

Application of Proceeds

22

Section 5.04

Suits for Enforcement

22

Section 5.05

Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings

23

Section 5.06

Limitations on Suits by Securityholders

23

Section 5.07

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits

23

 

i



 

Section 5.08

Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default

24

Section 5.09

Control by Holders of Securities

24

Section 5.10

Waiver of Past Defaults

25

Section 5.11

Trustee to Give Notice of Default

25

Section 5.12

Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs

25

 

 

 

ARTICLE 6                              CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

26

 

 

Section 6.01

Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default

26

Section 6.02

Certain Rights of the Trustee

26

Section 6.03

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof

27

Section 6.04

Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc.

28

Section 6.05

Moneys Held by Trustee

28

Section 6.06

Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim

28

Section 6.07

Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc.

28

Section 6.08

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

29

Section 6.09

Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee

29

Section 6.10

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee

29

Section 6.11

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee

30

Section 6.12

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee

31

Section 6.13

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer

32

 

 

 

ARTICLE 7                              CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

32

 

 

Section 7.01

Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders

32

Section 7.02

Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities

32

Section 7.03

Holders to Be Treated as Owners

32

Section 7.04

Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding

33

Section 7.05

Right of Revocation of Action Taken

33

 

 

 

ARTICLE 8                              SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

33

 

 

Section 8.01

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

33

Section 8.02

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

35

Section 8.03

Effect of Supplemental Indenture

36

Section 8.04

Documents to Be Given to Trustee

36

Section 8.05

Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures

37

 

 

 

ARTICLE 9                              CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

37

 

 

Section 9.01

Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms

37

Section 9.02

Successor Issuer Substituted

38

 

 

 

ARTICLE 10                       SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

38

 

 

Section 10.01

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance

38

 

ii



 

Section 10.02

Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities

42

Section 10.03

Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent

42

Section 10.04

Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years

42

Section 10.05

Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations

42

 

 

 

ARTICLE 11                       MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

42

 

 

Section 11.01

No Recourse

42

Section 11.02

Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities

43

Section 11.03

Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture

43

Section 11.04

Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities

43

Section 11.05

Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein

44

Section 11.06

Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays

45

Section 11.07

Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939

45

Section 11.08

New York Law to Govern

45

Section 11.09

Counterparts

45

Section 11.10

Effect of Headings

45

Section 11.11

Actions by Successor

45

Section 11.12

Severability

45

 

 

 

ARTICLE 12                       REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

45

 

 

Section 12.01

Applicability of Article

45

Section 12.02

Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions

46

Section 12.03

Payment of Securities Called for Redemption

47

Section 12.04

Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption

48

Section 12.05

Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds

48

 

iii



 

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of           between Nabriva Therapeutics plc, a public limited company incorporated in Ireland (the “Issuer”), and         , a         (the “Trustee”),

 

W I T N E S S E T H :

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

 

NOW, THEREFORE:

 

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

 

ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01         Certain Terms Defined.  The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933 as in force at the date of this Indenture.  All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation.  The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.  The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

 

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts that are required by this Indenture or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Issuer in respect of certain taxes, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.

 

Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to a Depositary, as to any matter at any time, the policies and procedures of such Depositary, if any, that are applicable to such matter at such time.

 

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.

 



 

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

 

Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock; (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership interests (whether general or limited) or membership interests; and (d) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any Debt securities convertible into Capital Stock, whether or not such Debt securities include any right of participation with Capital Stock.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at           .

 

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person.  For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

 

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

 

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

 

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

 

Foreign Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the government of a country other than the United States of America, backed by the full faith and credit of such government, (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government or (c) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (a) and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

2



 

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

 

Holder”, “holder”, “holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

 

Interest Payment Date”, with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

Issuer” means Nabriva Therapeutics plc, a public limited company incorporated in Ireland, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

 

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

 

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee.  Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee.  Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

 

Ordinary Shares” means ordinary shares, nominal value $0.01 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such shares may be reconstituted from time to time.

 

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

3



 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

 

(a)           Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(b)           Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01(a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice;

 

(c)           Securities as to which Legal Defeasance shall have been effected pursuant to Section 10.01(b);

 

(d)           Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Ordinary Shares pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02; and

 

(e)           Securities as to which any property deliverable upon conversion thereof has been delivered (or such delivery has been made available), or as to which any other particular conditions have been satisfied, in each case as may be provided for such Securities as contemplated in Section 2.03.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 2.03, and (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies, composite currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 2.03, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such clause).

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, limited company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

 

“record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

 

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall

 

4



 

be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

 

Stated Maturity”, with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon or any Additional Amounts with respect thereto, means the date established by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is, or such Additional Amounts are, due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means any corporation or other entity (including, without limitation, partnerships, limited liability companies, limited companies, joint ventures and associations) of which at least a majority of the outstanding Capital Stock having by the terms thereof (without regard to the occurrence or any contingency) ordinary voting power for the election of directors (or persons performing similar functions) of such corporation or other entity (irrespective of whether or not at the time the Capital Stock of any other class or classes of such corporation or other entity shall have or might have voting power by reason of the occurrence of any such contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by the Issuer, or by one or more Subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more other Subsidiaries of the Issuer.

 

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

 

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee.  “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

 

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

 

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

 

ARTICLE 2
SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01         Forms Generally.  The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations

 

5



 

pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

Section 2.02         Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.  The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

 

 

as Trustee

 

 

 

 

 

By:

 

 

 

Authorized Officer

 

Section 2.03         Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.  The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

The Securities may be issued in one or more series.  The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto.  The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

 

(a)           the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

 

(b)           any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

 

(c)           the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable or the method used to determine those dates and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

6



 

(d)           the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any or the method by which such rate or rates shall be determined; the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable; the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined; the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension; and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

(e)           the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

 

(f)            the obligation or the right, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation or right;

 

(g)           if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(h)           if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(i)            if other than Dollars, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the Securities of the series are denominated;

 

(j)            if other than the currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

 

(k)           if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

(l)            if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(m)          the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Ordinary Shares will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

 

(n)           if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange;

 

7



 

(o)           if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

(p)           whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay Additional Amounts on the Securities and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

(q)           if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

(r)            any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(s)            any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture; and

 

(t)            any other terms of the series.

 

The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities).  Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

 

Section 2.04         Authentication and Delivery of Securities.  The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order.  The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures.  If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing.  In authenticating such Securities and accepting the

 

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additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:

 

(a)           an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

(b)           any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

 

(c)           an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

 

(d)           an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

 

(i)            the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

 

(ii)           the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture, and

 

(iii)          such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer,

 

and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

 

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:

 

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“UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and any other applicable statute or regulation.

 

Section 2.05         Execution of Securities.  The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer.  Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers.  Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.

 

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

Section 2.06         Certificate of Authentication.  Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.  The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

Section 2.07         Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest.  The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 thereof.  The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof.  Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

 

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Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.  The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

 

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such Interest Payment Date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date.  The term “record date” as used with respect to any Interest Payment Date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so specified, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such Interest Payment Date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

 

Section 2.08         Registration, Transfer and Exchange.  The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series.  Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time.  At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

 

Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided.  Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.  All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

 

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All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities.  No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

 

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first delivery of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series.  If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities.  In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance

 

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with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary.  Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

(i)            to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

 

(ii)           to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

 

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee.  Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee.  The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

Section 2.09         Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.  In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen.  In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee.

 

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.  In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of

 

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the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder.  All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.10         Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof.  All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture.  The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer.  If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.11         Temporary Securities.  Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee).  Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof.  Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate.  Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities.  Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each

 

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office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

ARTICLE 3
COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

 

Section 3.01         Payment of Principal and Interest.  The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture.  The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer.

 

Section 3.02         Offices for Payments, Etc.  The Issuer will maintain (i) in        , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

The Issuer will maintain in                  , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

 

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof.  In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in                  , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section.  The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

 

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Section 3.03         Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee.  The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

 

Section 3.04         Paying Agents.  Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

 

(a)           that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

 

(b)           that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

 

(c)           that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

 

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due.  The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

 

Section 3.05         Written Statement to Trustee.  So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written certificate covering the previous fiscal year, (which need not comply with Section 11.05), signed by its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer, stating whether or not, to the best knowledge of such officer, the Issuer is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Issuer shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

 

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ARTICLE 4
SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 4.01         Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders.  The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

 

(a)           semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

 

(b)           at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

 

Section 4.02         Reports by the Issuer.  The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 insofar as it relates to information, documentation, and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Section 4.03         Reports by the Trustee.  Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before        in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto.  The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Section 4.04         Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders.  (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b)           The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

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(c)           Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.  The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

ARTICLE 5
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 5.01         Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default.  Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means any one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

(a)         default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

 

(b)         default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

 

(c)         default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

(d)         a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

(e)         the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the

 

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appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

(f)         any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

 

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable.  If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

 

The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of

 

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such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

 

Section 5.02         Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt.  The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise—then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

 

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

 

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

 

(i)         to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue

 

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Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

 

(ii)         unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

 

(iii)         to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

 

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

 

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In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

 

Section 5.03         Application of Proceeds.  Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST:  To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

 

SECOND:  In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

 

THIRD:  In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest, without preference or priority of principal over interest, or of interest over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest; and

 

FOURTH:  To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 5.04         Suits for Enforcement.  In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings

 

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as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Section 5.05         Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings.  In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

Section 5.06         Limitations on Suits by Securityholders.  No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue, or by availing itself, of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.07         Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits.  Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such Series and the Trustee, that no one or more

 

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Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of Securities of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.08         Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default.  Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise.  The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

 

Section 5.09         Control by Holders of Securities.  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

 

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

 

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Section 5.10          Waiver of Past Defaults.  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration.  In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 5.11          Trustee to Give Notice of Default.  The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Sections 4.03 and 11.04, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the giving of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.

 

Section 5.12          Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs.  All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE 6
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 6.01          Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default.  With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture.  In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (and has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

 

Section 6.02          Certain Rights of the Trustee.  In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01:

 

(a)           in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

(b)           the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(c)           the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

(d)           none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(e)           the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note,

 

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security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(f)            any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

 

(g)           the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

 

(h)           the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred therein or thereby;

 

(i)            the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(j)            prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and

 

(k)           the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.03          Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof.  The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and

 

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the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.  The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.  The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.

 

Section 6.04          Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc.  The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.

 

Section 6.05          Moneys Held by Trustee.  Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law.  Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.06          Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim.  The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith.  The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises.  The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.  Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim.

 

Section 6.07          Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc.  Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in

 

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respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 6.08          Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.  If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 6.09          Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee.  The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.  If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

 

Section 6.10          Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee.  (a)  The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by delivering notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register.  Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees.  If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the delivery of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee.  Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)           In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

 

(i)            the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

 

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(ii)           the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

(iii)          the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of itself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)           The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

 

(d)           Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

 

Section 6.11          Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee.  Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations.  Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting

 

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in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers.  Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

 

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall deliver notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by delivering such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register.  If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10.  If the Issuer fails to deliver such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

 

Section 6.12          Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee.  Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.

 

In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the

 

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Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

 

Section 6.13          Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer.  The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.  A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE 7
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 7.01          Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders.  Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee.  Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.

 

Section 7.02          Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities.  Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee.  The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof.  The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent.  Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer.

 

Section 7.03          Holders to Be Treated as Owners.  The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such

 

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Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.  All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

 

Section 7.04          Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding.  In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities that are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.  Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities.  In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

 

Section 7.05          Right of Revocation of Action Taken.  At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security.  Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security.  Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.

 

ARTICLE 8
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 8.01          Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders.  The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an

 

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indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a)           to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

 

(b)           to evidence the succession of another Person to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

(c)           to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

(d)           to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default;

 

(e)           to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus, prospectus supplement or offering memorandum related to such series of Securities;

 

(f)            to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

 

(g)           to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

 

(h)           to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

 

(i)            to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities; provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (A) not (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no Security described in clause (A)(i) Outstanding;

 

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(j)                                    to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

 

(k)                                 to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

 

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

 

Section 8.02                             Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.  With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive a continuing default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon, other than any such default in payment that resulted solely from such acceleration, or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity or the date of redemption or conversion of any Security or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any Security into or for Ordinary Shares or other securities, cash or other property in accordance with the terms of such Security or (e) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

 

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A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not been included or so modified.

 

Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by delivering a notice thereof, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture.  Any failure of the Trustee to deliver such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

Section 8.03                             Effect of Supplemental Indenture.  Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

Section 8.04                             Documents to Be Given to Trustee.  The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

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Section 8.05                             Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures.  Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders.  If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding.

 

ARTICLE 9
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

 

Section 9.01                             Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms.  The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, limited company, partnership, trust or similar entity, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of Ireland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, any other member state of the European Union or the United States of America, any political subdivision thereof or any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal, interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

 

The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

 

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Section 9.02                             Successor Issuer Substituted.  Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

ARTICLE 10
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

 

Section 10.01                                              Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance.  (a)  If at any time

 

(i)                                     the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

(ii)                                  the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) or

 

(iii)                               in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest and Additional Amounts due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

 

(A)                               all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year in accordance with their terms under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

 

(B)                               the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, in Dollars (other

 

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than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, in such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be,

 

and if, in a case described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.  The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

(b)                                 The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto pursuant to Section 2.03.  In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series discharged (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such a series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of

 

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Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of principal thereof, interest thereon and any Additional Amounts, upon the original Stated Maturities therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

 

(c)                                  The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03.  In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and any consequences thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture.  For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

(d)                                 The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (b)) or Covenant Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (c)) to the Securities of the applicable series:

 

(i)                                     the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Issuer under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be;

 

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(ii)                                  the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

 

(iii)                               no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

 

(iv)                              in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to U.S. Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

 

(v)                                 in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to U.S. Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

 

(vi)                              notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations that may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other applicable conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

 

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Section 10.02                                              Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities.  Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

Section 10.03                                              Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent.  In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

Section 10.04                                              Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years.  Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

 

Section 10.05                                              Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations.  The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

 

ARTICLE 11
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Section 11.01                                              No Recourse.  No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor Person, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor Person, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor Person, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name

 

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and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

Section 11.02                                              Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities.  Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.

 

Section 11.03                                              Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture.  All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

Section 11.04                                              Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities.  Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be delivered, given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to Nabriva Therapeutics plc, 1000 Continental Drive, Suite 600, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, Attn: Chief Executive Officer.  Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at        ,         , Attn:        .

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his, her or its last address as it appears in the Security register.  In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to a Holder of a Global Security, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee), pursuant to the Applicable Procedures of the Depositary, not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

 

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

 

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Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice.  Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

Section 11.05                                              Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein.  Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.  Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

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Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with and directed to the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.

 

Section 11.06                           Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays.  If the date of maturity of interest on or principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security, or the last day on which a Holder has the right to convert any Security, shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, or any conversion, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption or on such last day for conversion, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date.

 

Section 11.07                           Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939.  If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision included in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.

 

Section 11.08                           New York Law to Govern.  This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law.

 

Section 11.09                           Counterparts.  This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

Section 11.10                           Effect of Headings.  The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

Section 11.11                           Actions by Successor.  Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board of directors or its equivalent, committee or officer of the Issuer shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Issuer.

 

Section 11.12                           Severability.  In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

ARTICLE 12
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 12.01                           Applicability of Article.  The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any

 

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sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified, as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

 

Section 12.02                           Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions.  Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by providing notice of such redemption at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security register.  Any notice which is given in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice.  Failure to give notice or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.

 

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue and shall also specify, if applicable, the conversion price then in effect and the date on which the right to convert such Securities or the portions thereof to be redeemed will expire.  In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.

 

On or before the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.04) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption (other than those Securities theretofore surrendered for conversion into Ordinary Shares in accordance with their terms) at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption.  If any Security called for redemption is converted pursuant hereto and in accordance with the terms thereof, any money deposited with the Trustee or any paying agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall be paid to the Issuer upon the Issuer’s request, or, if then held by the Issuer, shall be discharged from such trust.  The Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the date the notice required to be delivered to the Holders is to be sent (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate (which need not comply with Section 11.05) stating the aggregate principal amount of Securities to be redeemed.  In case of a redemption at the election of the Issuer prior to the expiration of any restriction on

 

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such redemption, the Issuer shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate stating that such restriction has been complied with.

 

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part.  Securities may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof.  The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed.  For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed.  If any Security selected for partial redemption is surrendered for conversion after such selection, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be possible) to be the portion selected for redemption.

 

Section 12.03                           Payment of Securities Called for Redemption.  If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be convertible into Ordinary Shares (to the extent otherwise convertible in accordance with their terms), if applicable, and cease to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and except as provided in the paragraph below, the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption.  On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided, that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.03 and 2.07 hereof.

 

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security and, if applicable, such Security shall remain convertible into Ordinary Shares until the principal of such Security shall have been paid or duly provided for.

 

Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of

 

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the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 12.04                           Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption.  Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer.

 

Section 12.05                           Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds.  The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”.  The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”.

 

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Issuer may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except upon redemption pursuant to the mandatory sinking fund) by the Issuer or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 and, if applicable, receive credit for Securities (not previously so credited) converted into Ordinary Shares and so delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Issuer through any optional redemption provision contained in the terms of such series.  Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

 

On or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 11.05) (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the Securities of such series for which credit will be taken has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Issuer intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Issuer intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date.  Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Issuer to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or

 

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reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee).  Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Issuer shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date.  Failure of the Issuer, on or before any such 60th day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Issuer that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof.

 

If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency or a lesser sum in Dollars or in any Foreign Currency if the Issuer shall so request) with respect to the Securities of any particular series, such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption.  If such amount shall be $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) or less and the Issuer makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) is available, which delay in accordance with this paragraph shall not be a default or breach of the obligation to make such payment.  The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 12.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to which such cash may be applied, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Issuer) inform the Issuer of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected.  The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Issuer (or the Issuer, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing), shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 12.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 12.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Issuer.  The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section.  Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity.  The Issuer’s obligation to make a mandatory or optional sinking fund payment shall automatically be reduced by an amount equal to the sinking fund redemption price allocable to any Securities or portions thereof called for redemption pursuant to the preceding paragraph on any sinking fund payment date and converted into Ordinary Shares in accordance with the terms of such Securities; provided that, if the Trustee is not the conversion agent for the Securities, the Issuer or such conversion agent shall give the Trustee written notice on or prior to the date fixed for redemption of the principal amount of Securities or portions thereof so converted.

 

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On or before each sinking fund payment date, the Issuer shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date.

 

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or give any notice of redemption of Securities for such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where providing notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Issuer a sum sufficient for such redemption.  Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 5 and held for the payment of all such Securities.  In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 5.10, or the default cured on or before the 60th day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on such sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

 

[Signature pages follow]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of              .

 

 

NABRIVA THERAPEUTICS PLC

 

 

 

 

By:

 

 

 

Name:

 

 

Title:

 

 

 

Attest:

 

 

 

 

By: